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Applying my biology boner to Steve Rogers and the super serum: What this shit might actually have changed

puppysteeb:

caladblog:

puppysteeb:

This is for actualmenacebuckybarnes, becase this shit is way too long for an ask.

Okay, so what we know the serum did:

  1. Put on muscle and bone mass.
  2. Increased his metabolism by 4, according to the Marvel Guide Book
  3. Gave him increased endurance and strength, super healing and increased natural faculties
  4. Cured him of all his illnesses

To address 1 and 4, I think the serum was mostly a growth hormone that triggered stem cell growth throughout his body.  In a normal human, stem cells are found only during fetal development and very early childhood, resulting in cell differentiation.  If this is triggered en mass in an adult, it would cue mass cell turnover, effectively allowing the manipulation of very specific disorders, such as Steve’s scoliosis and color blindness and coupled with a growth hormone not unlike ones they have today, this could also lead to drastic increases in muscle and bone mass.  This would also lead to new neurons, making his brain larger and opening new pathways.

For number 2, metabolism is really controlled by one organ, the thyroid.  In humans,over or under active thyroids lead to pretty gross side effects including severe mental retardation, but given a perfect case, altering the thyroid’s behavior could lead to increased need for food, partially explain his increase in mass, and increases in endurance.

Speaking of endurance, the serum would have had to change the way he sweats to result in increased heat tolerance, change the way he digests to get more nutrients out of food, and things that aren’t food but still could be eaten.  (Steve has eaten some really gross stuff in canon to little effect.)  He also would have more efficient lungs and oxygen transfer, reducing physical stress and load on his body even during high physical activities.

There is a good chance the PH buffers in his body also changed to have a higher threshold for pain and injury, and increased healing would probably be related to the stem cells I mentioned earlier, plus enhanced metabolism leading to faster cell turn-over.

And if we’re going with a stem cell theory, this would probably not drastically alter his genetics, though things like metabolism could need to be altered at a genetic level, which explains why a super soldier breeding program would be unlikely to work very well.

!!!!!

applying my biology boner to your biology boner (it’s not gay if our science dweeb balls don’t touch??)

Actually, they’ve found stem cells in adult humans, the only specific place i can remember is in the hippocampus (one of the deep brain structures implicated in the formation of long-term memories!) (goes on a long bucky ramble about if the serum rly bumps up yr stem cells, and how it might affect his memory after having the ever-loving shit zapped out of him!)

I like the stem cell + growth hormone hypothesis because you can solve a lot of sci fi problems by throwing stem cells at em

I don’t get the cell turnover —> fixed scoliosis connection though? from what little i know of scoliosis and bones in general, rapid cell death & regrowth wouldn’t do much in the short term to change the structure of his spine. it’s more likely that his spine was literally pulled back into shape when the muscles supporting it were suddenly strengthened. that’s the general treatment for adults w/ scoliosis today—exercise to strengthen your back, torso, and leg muscles, plus pain management, plus maybe a brace in severe conditions

colorblindness also wouldn’t be fixed w/ cell turnover, because it’s generally caused by your retinal cells not producing the photopigments that chemically detect different wavelengths of light. the cells literally don’t have the genes that instruct your RNA to make those pigments. your retinal cells are already replaced about once a day! part of me is wondering if steve is really actually colorblind, or if it’s just something they threw out there to pad his list of conditions, because it was only briefly on screen and never mentioned by any of the characters. was he colorblind in the comicsverse?

having more neurons or a bigger brain (not mutually inclusive things) does not actually lead to increased intelligence/reflexes/aptitude/whatever! because neurons are hungry little fucks, they use up a LOT of glucose & oxygen, so adding a bunch of them all at once would just starve out the whole lot. intelligence and reflexes come from the synchronization of neuronal firing, from the pathways you set down through repetition. you actually had about twice as many neurons as an infant than you do today— all those neurons grew and divided rapidly and threw down connections with everything the could get their grubby little dendrites on, and the ones that didn’t make enough connections, or didn’t connect in useful enough ways, were killed off mercilessly. i don’t actually know how they’d improve his reflexes or heighten his senses just using some mystery serum. still tryna work that one out.

the metabolism thing is a bit tricky, cause there’s a couple different ways of defining metabolism. if we’re just talking about energy+oxygen usage, there’s a really simple explanation: he’s bigger. he’s got more muscle mass, so he burns more glucose, no thyroid fuckery necessary. the increased metabolism would be a side effect of the serum, in this case.

if we’re defining metabolism as the ability to extract nutrients from things, or as the ability to metabolize poisons and toxins that would lay out a normal man [side note: alcohol is technically a toxin. steve can’t get drunk in the mcu. thus, the serum at least caused the second thing], then yeah they’d have to fuck with his entire digestive system somehow. especially the liver. i basically don’t know shit about the liver, i’ll have to research this & get back to you

yes to the more efficient lungs thing, apart from increasing his muscle & bone mass the serum mostly seems to have made all his organs more efficient. how did they do this? SCIENCE. i have no fucking idea abt the specifics

rapid cell turnover WOULD lead to more rapid healing. i can’t decide if this would make him more or less likely to get cancer, though?? because turnover includes cell growth AND cell death, and if his cells are dividing more often than normal that means there’s more opportunities for potentially-tumor-causing mistakes to be made when copying the DNA, but if you’re also bumping up the rate of natural programmed cell death then that would also kind of kneecap any tumors that tried to get off the ground? maybe ???

could the op explain the pH buffer-pain tolerance connection, please? idgi

i’m leaning more towards the stem cell/growth hormone cocktail theory rather than the genetic-alteration theory if only because widespread genetic alteration wouldn’t produce immediate or reliable results. the state of our CURRENT gene therapy is ridiculous, basically you chuck a bunch of programmed viruses at a cell culture and hope they correctly rewrite the DNA there, and then you hope the DNA change is correctly read by the RNA, and then you hope the DNA change produces the altered proteins you thought it would, and then you hope the DNA change is passed on to the daughter cells when your altered cell splits or else all of this was completely useless. the chances of all of the serum’s changes working on steve the first time, and not leaving him a bag of tumors & various defects, are ASTRONOMICAL.

 As for Ph buffers, they prevent chemical reactions in blood and cell fluids because they absorb acids and bases.  So having a stronger, more adaptable buffer in your body means you’d have a higher tolerance for acids, bases and the chemical effects of temperature.  So things that would be damaging for a normal human like acids, heat or any chemical that attacks cells, would do a lot less damage.  (I just realized that this is not quite the same thing as pain tolerance.)

Part of why I think stem cells would be a big part of fixing a lot of the chronic injury is that new cells would be much easier to realign than existing ones, and coupled with the massive growth would be much more elastic for differentiated growth.  Also, seeing as there are forms of colorblindness that are caused by an absence or reduction in certain vision cells, it is possible that a mass triggering of stem cell growth would also fix his eye issues.  (This would be dependent on the cause of his color blindness.)

And you’re right to point out that an increase in brain size alone wouldn’t lead to increased ability for sure, but it would almost guarantee increased emotional response thanks to growth in the hippocampus and amygdala and the rest of the limbic system along with potential for enhanced memory.  (We Steve remember a HYDRA map perfectly after just a glance, so his memory is pretty photographic after the serum.)

As far as the liver, increased liver function would have to be a change in enzymatic functions, which would also bear out changes in blood, including increased red blood cell turnover potentially enhancing the body’s ability to carry oxygen.

Fun fact:  Captain America would probably pee more than the average person.

(via strikelikeahawk)

strikelikeahawk:

clavid:

shakeitoffs:

lol look how quickly tables turned after consequences were involved

KILL HIM

he’;s such a fucking bag of dicks

margoverger:

Parallels

You’re the new Will Graham.

(via lucleon)

vantasticmess:

eveil:

nightkinks:

scribblescruff:

brandonchesnutt:

Amazing Jurassic Park cosplay. I’m dying. Via Gamma Squad.


omg the video of them going around the con is HILARIOUS

Go faster. Must go faster.

This is the true spirit of cosplay
a full grown man riding in a Power Wheel modified to look like a Jurassic Park truck
with a lady in a raptor suit chasing him all over the convention
everyone else go home.

vantasticmess:

eveil:

nightkinks:

scribblescruff:

brandonchesnutt:

Amazing Jurassic Park cosplay. I’m dying. Via Gamma Squad.

omg the video of them going around the con is HILARIOUS

Go faster. Must go faster.

This is the true spirit of cosplay

a full grown man riding in a Power Wheel modified to look like a Jurassic Park truck

with a lady in a raptor suit chasing him all over the convention

everyone else go home.

(via lucleon)

maneth985:

harzilla:

fallen-angel-with-a-shotgun:

dajo42:

if you dont have me on facebook you are probably not missing out on any posts but the comment section is important too lmao

I went to the Renaissance faire dressed as a warrior.  I had a real sword with me, too.  I was standing (in character) next to a sword-fighting ring, where kids of all ages got the chance to pick up a sword and challenge the champion.  Some woman walks by, with her little girl.  The girl starts walking towards the ring, saying she wants to fight.  But the mom pulled her away hella sharply, and was like, “That’s for boys.”  You don’t want to be a BOY, do you?”    And the girl looked around and saw me.  I think she thought I was a boy; I had my hair in a ponytail, and was wearing a hood.  So she comes up to me and asks me, “Do you think girls can be fighters, too?”  And her mom looks like she’s silently gloating.  Like she thinks I’m going to say no.  So I take off my hood, untie my hair so that it flows freely, and kneel before her.  And I’m like, “Milady, anyone can be a fighter.”  I swear, the look on that mother’s face made my day.

-

maneth985:

harzilla:

fallen-angel-with-a-shotgun:

dajo42:

if you dont have me on facebook you are probably not missing out on any posts but the comment section is important too lmao

I went to the Renaissance faire dressed as a warrior.  I had a real sword with me, too.  I was standing (in character) next to a sword-fighting ring, where kids of all ages got the chance to pick up a sword and challenge the champion.  Some woman walks by, with her little girl.  The girl starts walking towards the ring, saying she wants to fight.  But the mom pulled her away hella sharply, and was like, “That’s for boys.”  You don’t want to be a BOY, do you?”    And the girl looked around and saw me.  I think she thought I was a boy; I had my hair in a ponytail, and was wearing a hood.  So she comes up to me and asks me, “Do you think girls can be fighters, too?”  And her mom looks like she’s silently gloating.  Like she thinks I’m going to say no.  So I take off my hood, untie my hair so that it flows freely, and kneel before her.  And I’m like, “Milady, anyone can be a fighter.”  I swear, the look on that mother’s face made my day.

-

(via darkly-stark)

emmawatsonsdaily:

One of the reasons why Emma Watson is one of the best female role-models of our time. She’s so underrated.

(via darkly-stark)

221badwolfstreet:

hippofoliage:

dittanyandthedoctor:

the-fandoms-are-cool:

elphabaforpresidentofgallifrey:

221badwolfstreet:

hiddlestonhug:

tardis-mind-palace:


Adorable 10th Doctor and Weeping Angel from DragonCon via reddit 

OH god I ship this so hard but the relationship would suck because she could only speak and move when he wasn’t looking… But he would trust her enough to turn his back OH GOD THE FEELS SOMEONE FIC THIS

This is adorable.

When he walked into the room, it was too quiet and too dark. Quickly, he pulled out his sonic screw driver and started to turn in a circle in order to scan for any life in the room. As he was spinning, he noticed something out of the corner of his eye. 
Something still.
Something with wings.
Something hiding its face.
The Doctor knew he only had milliseconds before the Weeping Angel would reach him and feed off of his time energy. Wielding his sonic screwdriver, The Doctor spun to face the angel. however, what he saw when he faced the angel almost caused him to blink…almost.
Instead of clawed hands and a snarling face, The Weeping Angel was reaching out towards The Doctor with a longing expression on her stony face. Even though her face was illuminated by the blue light from the sonic screw driver The Doctor recognized her features any where. Leaning in too examine her pained face The Doctor only managed to whisper, “Rose?”
Even though she couldn’t answer with him looking at her, The Doctor knew it was his Rose. She had the same curved lips, the same round face, the same nose that he always touched when she sassed him. “Rose Tyler, what happened to you?”
The Doctor knew that if he wanted an answer, he’d have to close his eyes.
“I’m trusting you, Rose. Please. please still be my Rose.”
Slowly, The Doctor closed his eyes and as soon as he was left in the darkness he felt his chest tighten and a cold hand placed itself on his cheek.
“Doctor,” she spoke as soft as the petal of the flower she was named for, “My Doctor, oh how I’ve missed you so.”

NOOOOOO

THAT’S NOT WHAT WE WANTED
THAT’S NOT WHAT WE WANTED AT ALL

go sit in the corner and think about what you’ve done.

No, let’s rock this AU 


OH MY GOD TOU MADE THAT OFF OF SOMETHING THAT I WROTE
MY FIC
HOLY FUCK

221badwolfstreet:

hippofoliage:

dittanyandthedoctor:

the-fandoms-are-cool:

elphabaforpresidentofgallifrey:

221badwolfstreet:

hiddlestonhug:

tardis-mind-palace:

OH god I ship this so hard but the relationship would suck because she could only speak and move when he wasn’t looking… But he would trust her enough to turn his back OH GOD THE FEELS SOMEONE FIC THIS

This is adorable.

When he walked into the room, it was too quiet and too dark. Quickly, he pulled out his sonic screw driver and started to turn in a circle in order to scan for any life in the room. As he was spinning, he noticed something out of the corner of his eye. 

Something still.

Something with wings.

Something hiding its face.

The Doctor knew he only had milliseconds before the Weeping Angel would reach him and feed off of his time energy. Wielding his sonic screwdriver, The Doctor spun to face the angel. however, what he saw when he faced the angel almost caused him to blink…almost.

Instead of clawed hands and a snarling face, The Weeping Angel was reaching out towards The Doctor with a longing expression on her stony face. Even though her face was illuminated by the blue light from the sonic screw driver The Doctor recognized her features any where. Leaning in too examine her pained face The Doctor only managed to whisper, “Rose?”

Even though she couldn’t answer with him looking at her, The Doctor knew it was his Rose. She had the same curved lips, the same round face, the same nose that he always touched when she sassed him. “Rose Tyler, what happened to you?”

The Doctor knew that if he wanted an answer, he’d have to close his eyes.

“I’m trusting you, Rose. Please. please still be my Rose.”

Slowly, The Doctor closed his eyes and as soon as he was left in the darkness he felt his chest tighten and a cold hand placed itself on his cheek.

“Doctor,” she spoke as soft as the petal of the flower she was named for, “My Doctor, oh how I’ve missed you so.”

NOOOOOO

THAT’S NOT WHAT WE WANTED

THAT’S NOT WHAT WE WANTED AT ALL

go sit in the corner and think about what you’ve done.

No, let’s rock this AU 

image

OH MY GOD TOU MADE THAT OFF OF SOMETHING THAT I WROTE

MY FIC

HOLY FUCK

(via darkly-stark)

avengerclintbarton:

809:

why is this so hard for people to understand

Can we also not just focus on Jennifer Lawrence alone. There was a plethora of other A-Listers and such who were affected by and victims of this intimate/nude photos leak. One of the articles I read stated the hacker claims to have at least a fucking HUNDRED photos of 60+ celebrities. Let’s also not forget one of the actresses who fell victim to this leak, aside from Jennifer, had photos leaked of her *AND* her husband.

I have not seen the list of names, but seriously guys. Don’t forget JLaw was NOT the *only* celebrity affected and victimized in this. 

Also.. Lena Dunham tweeted the greatest fucking thing ever about this— which I commented about on Facebook when the word ‘publicity stunt’ was mentioned, as well as ‘they shouldn’t have taken the pictures in the first place.’ Since I’m currently too lazy to screenshot the tweet and whatnot, the direct quote from her Twitter account is, "The ‘don’t take naked pics if you don’t want them online’ argument is the ‘she was wearing a short skirt’ of the web."

And it couldn’t be more accurate. She hit the nail on the head with that statement. Based on what I’ve read people saying, and what has been posted regarding the leak, is that not only were these pictures OLD but as I said before PERSONAL. A woman with her husband? Clearly not fucking intended to be seen by anyone but herself and her hubby. 

Not that I’m some master nude photo taker, but there are certain things you don’t ever do. Golden rule number 1: never show your face- got forbid it gets around or circulated— or in this case hacked, stolen, and leaked for the world to see

God forbid a woman wants to be proud enough of her body to take a photo in her birthday suit. And apparently unless you’re a married male politician, no one cares if your dick gets circulated. Sorry guys who may be reading this. I recall an incident in 2006 where  Pete Wentz’s dick ended up leaked onto the internet. The only people who seemed to care were FOB fans— who seemed more outraged than Pete himself.

Long story short. Quit calling it a scandal. Because it fucking isn’t. None of the victims of this hacking/crime/photo leak ever intended for anyone else but themselves to see the pictures. They were on CLOUD storage. The asshole who leaked them had to HACK the Cloud storage to get their grimey hands on them. 

t3mplvr:

miss-love:

thepsycheofdee:

66-seals-of-fuck-you:

concernedresidentofbakerstreet:

scumsucking-roadwh0re:

#DONT FUCKING TOUCH ME IM NOT OVER THIs

friendly reminder that when the actor who played khal drogo met the actress who plays daenerys he shouted “WIFEY!” and tackled her

Also reminder that during one of the sex scenes they were supposed to film, he came on with a sock puppet on his dick and Emilia Clarke was laughing so hard they had to take a ten minute break. 

​My life is
INFINITELY better knowing those tidbits of information

at the Q&A panel I went to with him he said before every sex scene with her he would go “I’M SORRY I’M SORRY I’M SORRY I’M SORRY” before getting into character and going at it

these two are everything

(via darkly-stark)